Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities


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In networking, Named Data Networking (NDN) is an emerging networking model for distributing web information based on the host machine. In this, it uses a new concept as “data-name” where the data name is used for both contents requesting and retrieval. As a result, it increases the data transmission reliability, efficiency, and accessibility. Overall it has the motive to achieve tight security over the information more than the usual procedure.

This page is prepared to provide comprehensive research updates on Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities!!!

Certainly, NDN furnishes several benefits when network services are allied with application requirements. The benefits may be of anything like enhanced scalability, reliability, security, network usability, etc.

For advanced smart cities, NDN can be incorporated with Intelligent Transport System (ITS) architecture. It uses NDN plane / IP-based communication to collect required data in the large-scale network of vehicles. 

Now, we can see the possible ways to incorporate NDN in ITS in smart cities. By using NDN, we can improve mobility, security, reliability, applications, etc. In this kind of application, the requested data can be temporal, spatial, or spatiotemporal type. For instance: weather, road state, pedestrian, traffic, parking, garbage level, etc. are all considered as spatiotemporal data which changes over a certain time/location. For your better understanding, here we have given you the general characteristics of NDN-ITS which improve the efficiency of smart cities.

Properties of NDN based ITS

  • Able to reduce traffic routes in smart city
  • Sense the data related to traffic / commuter travel
  • Capable to enhance traffic control and transport result
  • Enable to increase reliability, security, transport productivity, etc.
  • Allow to share traffic data among connected vehicles in real-time

One more important property of NDN-based ITS: it supports several real-time applications. So far, our resource team has developed an infinite number of applications regardless of complexity. As a result, we are completely aware of research demands on NDN-based ITS applications/services. For your reference, here we have listed only a few of them.

Research Implementation of Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities

Applications of Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities

  • Priority based Transit Signal
  • City-based Traffic Monitoring and Control
  • Estimation of Parking Availability
  • Smart Metering and Dynamic Speed Limits
  • Real-time Information Collection
  • Advanced Electric Vehicle with Charging Facility
  • Intelligent Mass Transit
  • Varying Speed Limits Control
  • Priority-based Smart Parking System
  • Smart Electric Automobile Charging
  • Automated Logistics System
  • Smart Vehicle Aid in Emergency Situations
  • Real-Time Traffic Data Distribution

Different Application Types for NDN

Security Applications

  • Vehicle Accident Alert-Service
    • Time Validity – 30 sec
    • Space Validity – 500 m
    • Local Interest – all vehicles
  • Dangerous Road Warning
    • Time Validity – 10 sec
    • Space Validity – 500 m
    • Local Interest – all vehicles
  • Work Zone Alert Service
    • Time Validity – up to work completion
    • Space Validity – 1 km
    • Local Interest – all vehicles

Congestion Applications

  • Traffic Mapping
    • Time Validity – 30 min
    • Space Validity – 10 km
    • Local Interest – subscriber
  • Road Jamming
    • Time Validity – 30 min
    • Space Validity – 5 km
    • Local Interest – all vehicles

Infotainment Applications

  • Multimedia Content Sharing
    • Time Validity – 15 min
    • Space Validity – 1 km
    • Local Interest – subscriber

As a matter of fact, our research team has several years of practice in working with NDN and ITS domains. So, we are skilled to integrate both fields together in real-world applications like smart cities. We support not only research but also code execution. Our main objectives of this integrated field are given below, 

Our Objectives

  • Spread knowledge on Named Data Networking  
  • Integration of Next generation internet applications in Smart City
  • Aware research importance on Named Data Networking
  • Summary about Impact and Legacy of Internet Service in Smart City

Role of ITS in Smart Cities

In the past couple of decades, NDN enabled ITS to support an extensive range of applications with an intention to support high (fuel efficacy, mobility, security) and low (traveling time and carbon discharges). Further, the efficiency is measured by following few parameters, 

  • Distance Traffic Signals (DTS)
  • Traffic Signals (TS)
  • Vehicular Speed (VS)
  • Trip Riding Distance (RD)
  • Road Capacity (RC)

Specifically, NDN generates more advantages while integrating with IoT and edge computing. Now, let’s see why NDN acquires an important position in current real-time applications.

Why NDN?

At the moment, information processing is facing the big challenge of communication is resource constraints. So, information networking is motivated to address the resource constraint challenges. In this, data are shared among different IPEs using logical / host addresses. Meanwhile, the route map is constructed among IPE and locations are using a Domain name server (DNS). In this, port addresses are used to identify IPEs and IP addresses are used to create connections among IPEs. 

However, it establishes communication, it causes connectivity problems due to the IPE mobility. Further, it also includes resource accessibility problems due to demand fluctuation in a distributed network. In order to overcome all these classic networking issues, NDN is launched. Due to its numerous benefits, it is growing fast than other networks. The workflow of NDN is given as follows,

  • Provide name to data rather than devices
  • Send interest packet along with data name to demand data
  • Apply Forwarding Information Base (FIB) to select route for forwarding interest packets
  • FIB gives neighbor node information to each node for routing
  • Store the received interested packets in Pending Interest Table through incoming interface
  • Requesting same object from multiple locations may lead to suppressed / collapsed

We hope that now you are clear with the fundamentals and workflow of Named Data Networking. Now, we can see some technical issues that affect the NDN model performance in real-world scenarios. Our experts are proficient to untie the knots of complication in NDN models. So, we assist you to solve problems in an effective way.

Research Issues in Named Data Networking

  • Heterogeneous Network Problems (mismatch standards, platform, strategies, etc.)
  • High Network Complexity (large-scale network)
  • Limited Memory Usage

To the continuation, here we also included the research issues that occur on integrating NDN with ITS. Though NDN-based ITS presents you with more benefits in fast and accurate data forwarding, it has some issues in real-time large-scale networks. And, few of them are given below for your awareness, 

Some of the other Issues of NDN in ITS

  • NDN Data Transmission Virtualization
  • Content Caching and Discovery
  • Live Data Packet Forwarding
  • Data Integrity and Authenticity Checking
  • Attainment of Data Privacy and Security

Next, we can see about the latest research interest on Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities. For that, we have given you the recent areas with their key challenges and solutions. Beyond this list, we have numerous ongoing research trends (problems and solving-solution) to support you in all aspects.

Current Trends in Named Data Networking for ITS based Smart Cities Applications

  • Content Detection and Distribution
    • Challenges
      • Assurance of content accessibility in dynamic provider mobility
    • Solutions
      • Co-operative caching packet forwarding
      • SDN-assisted near caching
      • Optimal near-caching interest forwarding
  • Security
    • Challenges
      • Assurance of provider availability for delivering content accessibility policies
    • Solutions
      • Dissemination access policies in the network
      • Utilize trusted third-parties
  • Quality of Service
    • Challenges
      • Assurance of QoS with multiple metrics
    • Solutions
      • Prioritize traffic by semantic-aware name entities
      • Include Meta-file info with Content

In addition, our research team like to share a few interesting research notions on the NDN-based ITS field. These ideas are piled up from current research areas to make you realize the current research direction of NDN in the ITS field. The current research ideas are not limited to this below list, more than this we have extended service in other areas too

Research Ideas on NDN in ITS

  • Fame based Caching Policy
  • Blockchain-based Smart Contract in NDN
  • PID Scheduling and Entry Controlling
  • Advances in Information Privacy Conservation
  • PID Control for Mobile Augmented Reality
  • Machine Learning based Feature Name Replacement
  • Conceptual study from Name to Hash Encryption

Specifically, we are unique in handpicking suitable research solutions for your selected research issues. Since experienced developers are skillful to use modern techniques and algorithms. Further, if necessary we also write and design our own pseudo-code / protocol to tackle complex issues. Below, we have listed few NDN techniques that surely give the best results for NDN-related projects

Research NDN Based ITS 
For Smart Cities

Named Data Networking Protocols

  • NDN Security Protocols
    • Digital Signature
    • Four-Q-Curve
    • SEAL Approach
    • SHA-1, 2, and 3
    • Merkle Hash Tree
    • Trust-based DSA
    • XTEA Encryption
  • Optimal Interest Forwarding Protocols
    • Deer Hunting Optimizer
    • Killer Whale Algorithm
    • Lion Pride Optimizer
    • Random Forest Search
    • Hypercube Algorithm
    • Spotted Hyena Optimizer
    • Rain Water Algorithm
    • Quantum Particle Swarm
  • PID Control Protocols
    • SJF and FCFS
    • Shannon Entropy
    • Belief Entropy
    • PSO Algorithm
    • Kapur’s Entropy
    • Tsalis Entropy
    • M/M/1/N Model
    • Fair Scheduling

For illustration purposes, here we have listed our recent research works on Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities. In this, we have included the application development tools and technologies. In addition, we also added performance metrics that we used to evaluate the developed model for analyzing efficiency.

Research Topics in NDN for ITS Smart Cities

  • NDN Architectural Design using Hierarchical Naming Scheme
    • Tools – ndnSIM module and NS3
    • Metrics – Security and Scalability
  • Multi-Push technique for NDN Data Forwarding Model
    • Tools – MATLAB
    • Metrics – Reliability (nodes communication)
  • ICT-based Disaster Management using Caching Schemes
    • Tools – DVB-RCS2, NS3 and DVB-S2
    • Metrics- Hit Rate, End-to-end latency and Traffic load
  • Location-Aware NDN Applications
    • Tools – MATLAB
    • Metrics – High Memory Usage
  • Efficient Content Retrieval in NDN infrastructure using Same Interest Packets
    • Tools – ndnSIM module and NS3
    • Metrics – Retrieval Time and Save bandwidth

For a research project, the primary action to be taken is development tool selection. Since the efficiency of the project development is predominantly depends on it. No matter what tools we are choosing, the matter is how it is sophisticated with enriched libraries and toolboxes to make your code execution simple and optimal. 

Simulation Tools for NDN Projects

  • NS-2 / 3
    • Features
      • Open-source software which enable to deploy on Mac OS, Windows and Linux
      • Support huge-scale network topology design with full TCP/IP
    • Applications
      • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure
      • Traffic Ticketing and Management
      • Info-Traffic Broadcasting
  • ndnSIM
    • Features
      • Open-source software for operating NDN protocols
      • Allow huge-scale trials in Mac OS and Windows platforms
      • Support different entities, modules and NS3-NetDevice
      • Enable packet analysis and traffic sharing (between ndnSIM and CCNx)
      • Execute over transport, network and data link layer protocols
      • Able to work with packet forwarding, caching, congestion, routing, etc. in network layer
    • Applications
      • Content Caching
      • Live Video Streaming
      • Traffic Information Distribution
      • Multimedia Dissemination
      • Network Entities Mobility Scenarios
  • Others (QualNet, OMNeT++, Matlab, etc.)
    • Features
      • Simple and Open-source software
      • Platform – Windows, Linux and Mac OS
    • Applications
      • Various Mobility Scenarios
      • Info-Traffic Services

Overall, we ensure you that the service will surely meet your research expectation in all aspects. So, if you are willing to hold your hands with our research experts, then your research journey is hurdles-free in both research and development perspectives Named Data Networking Based ITS For Smart Cities

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