Vertical handoff (or Vertical handover) is a network node that changes the kind of connections it employs to reach a physical infrastructure, typically to enable node mobility. For instance, a laptop with the appropriate hardware might well be online via mostly high-speed WLAN and cellular technologies. If you are interested to know more details about implementing vertical handover in matlab, reach our panel team..
Why is vertical handover important?
- The entire framework of the algorithms is built by transitioning amongst 4G, 5G, UMTS, WLAN, and GPRS networks for using system resources
- Vertical handover is essential in case of sustaining connection and services in the environment of heterogeneous wireless networks
The focus area of research in vertical handover is its optimization and possibilities of applying specific handovers.
How to define vertical handover?
- The vertical handover is automatic communication or data session switching among various technologies
- It is also referred to as the process of transferring and establish the call from the channel of the cell to another core network
This article will provide you a complete picture of vertical handover in MATLAB.
What are characteristics of vertical handover?
- Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network is a hierarchical framework of various wireless devices. In terms of network range, power, bandwidth, technologies, and service provider, wireless networks vary
- A Vertical Handoff (VHO) occurs whenever a mobile node using multiple data interfaces departs a wireless connection to join the other
- However, the serious points that must be addressed for executing an optimal VHO in maximizing both the Quality of Service and quality of experience are when, where and on what basis to perform the VHO
- In this context, the assessment methodologies and the selection of relevant handoff decision attributes are crucial
- Mobility is vital in a heterogeneous environment since base nodes (mobile stations) have to be prepared to commute all across the system and connect with multiple Radio Access Technologies (or RATs)
- Traditionally, mobile stations assess the point of attachment (or PoA) focusing on a limited criterion, like signal strength received or RSS
With the experience of guiding vertical handover in MATLAB projects for more than 15 years, we gained huge expertise in registering success in any project ideas in the field. You shall reach out to us with elevated confidence as we have got certified research experts, professional writers, developers, and experienced engineers here to support you in all aspects of your research. Let us now look into the steps followed in vertical handover,
What are the steps in vertical handover?
In general, handover is not a one-step operation; since it necessitates the execution of a multitude of methods which primarily include the following four steps,
- Preparation for the handover
- Handover to the target base station is requested
- Perform the Handover requests, make a choice, and then disconnect the previous base station link
- Execute the handover
For the algorithms and optimal methodologies utilized in these steps, you can get in touch with our expert team. We will provide you all the information from basics to advanced techniques and guide you most perfectly. Let us now see the input parameters in the vertical handover
Input Parameters for Vertical Handover
The following are the various Handoff decision criteria
- Network related (security, bandwidth, cost, coverage, latency and link quality)
- Terminal related (velocity, power of battery and information about location)
- User related (user preferences, profile and subscriptions)
- Service related (quality of service parameters and service capacities)
Let us now have a look into certain other input parameters,
- Quality of service (QoS) parameters
- Bandwidth (total, maximum. Minimum and available bandwidth) and delay (packet jitter, one way and roundtrip)
- Rate of bit error and Packet and frame loss
- Accessing cost
- Cost per time and byte
- Energy of battery
- Rate of power consumption
- Remaining energy
- Quality of signal
- SINR, ICI and ISI
- Signal to noise ratio and received signal strengths
- Encryption type
- Management of identity access
Making handover decision processes difficult in case of huge inputs. So Machine learning algorithms are used in such cases. In this regard, a researcher will surely need highly experienced research experts for seeking advice and guidance. You shall reach out to us for any technical advice.
What are the reasons for choosing Matlab to vertical handover?
MATLAB is one of the most common tools. Students and professionals in signal processing and communication engineering are very much familiar with all the tools and libraries of MATLAB while most of them have less expertise in C++ programming. The following are the major reasons for utilizing MATLAB in vertical handover
- MATLAB is highly supportive for visualization, powerful debugging, and performing mathematical operations
- It is advanced scripting and programming language which is also easily integrated with various other programs
- Control Actions with a variety of algorithms in making decisions as well as compare with vertical handover
- Several integrated options exist to handle the initial conditions for processing handover
- Capable of computing system performance when delivering packets in real-time between source and destination ground stations
- Able to increase the number of input nodes while running a dynamic network
- MIMO handling capacity in handover decision making
- MATLAB eliminates excessive calculation across available channels that do not guarantee the efficiency of the services, resulting in latency issues.
- It also reduces the handover failures, which decreases the number of unwanted handovers, the ping pong impact, dropping, and blockage rate
Due to these reasons, MATLAB has now become one of the significant tools for any advanced research projects. We gained enough experience in handling issues related to all tools and libraries in MATLAB. So you shall get in touch with us at any time regarding the research issues that you may be facing now. In the following, we are going to see how MATLAB significant in critical handover
MATLAB for Vertical handover
The following two aspects of MATLAB make it more important for vertical handover projects
- SIMULINK – need to change bulletin order
- SIMULINK is a methodology for selection of networks in vehicular networks in the vertical handover
- RUdimentary Network Emulator or RUNE
- To simulate, a MATLAB application is utilised with the help of the RUdimentary Network Emulator, a MATLAB-based toolkit (RUNE)
- The RUNE simulator, a customised version of MATLAB, is being used
- System, mobility, propagation, services, and user profiles models are mostly defined in the simulation software
To understand these in more detail with technical insight into the real-time implemented vertical handover in matlab projects, you can contact us. Our customer support team functions 24 x 7 to guide you. To have a better picture of the vertical handover process, we have provided below the detail of one of our successful projects in the field.
Simulation Steps for Vertical handover Process
One of our proposal stages regarding the vertical handover procedure, which is executed by our skilled research experts, is outlined below. To begin, we set the following criteria.
- The algorithm used – Back Propagation Neural Network
- Input Criteria – The highest rate of data transmission, low latency, SINR (signal to interference and noise ratio), rate of bit – error, users motion pace, and rate of packet loss are among the input criteria
- Communication Technologies – Wireless communication options useable are GPRS, 4G, 5G, UMTS, and WLAN
- Programming Tool – MATLAB R2020a is the tool employed
The algorithm for a heterogeneous converged network environment made up of five wireless networks is composed of the following stages
- The algorithm for vertical handover runs once the user terminal receives appropriate network parameters
- The six types of network attribute parameters that have been collected are then transmitted to the input data neurons of the three-layer BP neural network model
- The BP neural network conducts mathematical analysis and estimation based on the former references and values expected
- Finally, the neural network’s internal correlation with the strengths of every wireless network is to be determined
- Furthermore, within the neural network, establish the initialization settings, such as fair neural network iterations and anticipated values intended error limit
- In this paper’s algorithm, the following values are set
- The network iterations training and learning numbers are set about 5000 times
- The target mean square error of the training network expected prediction value is set around 6.5 x 10^-4
- The associated learning rate(or lr) is set to 5 x 10^-2
- Begin training the networks learning experience and execute the algorithm when you’ve set all of the basic parameter values
- With the user speed being around 3 metres per second, the following parameter values can be considered for various network types
- GPRS – It has a maximum transmission rate of 114 kbps, minimum transmission delay of 31 ms, approximately 15 SINR, 10 x 10^-6 bit error rate, 9 x 10^-3 packet loss rate, and 290 kbps network download rate
- 4G – It has 20470 kbps of maximum transmission rate, 14 ms of minimum transmission delay, 19 SINR, 0.8 x 10^-6 bit error rate, 1 x 10^-3, and 102300 kbps rate of network download
- WLAN – It provides for 5.12 x 10^4 kbps of maximum transmission rate with around 6 ms of minimum delay in transmission, 20 SINR, 6 x 10^-6 bit error rate, 2 x 10^ -3 packet loss rate, and 10.24 x 10^4 kbps of download rate
- 5G – It has 10.24 x 10^4 kbps of maximum transmission rate, 1 ms of minimum transmission delay, 24 SINR, 0.01 x 10^-6 bit error rate, 1 x 10^-4 and 5.12 x 10^5 kbps rate of network download
- UMTS – It has a maximum transmission rate of 1024 kbps, minimum transmission delay of 21 ms, approximately 17 SINR, 3 x 10^-6 bit error rate, 5 x 10^-9 packet loss rate, and 2050 kbps network download rate
- Finally, quantitative assessments are done based on expected network download speeds of the five wireless devices
- The evaluations are being forecasted, and the networks with the greatest performance are picked to conduct the vertical handover decisions based on the measured data
Based on the above steps, we implemented vertical handover in MATLAB successfully. Following is the note on different metrics used for analyzing the performance of our project
Performance Metrics for Vertical Handover in Matlab
Based on the number of users, the following parameters for vertical handover are considered for performance evaluation
- Delay (in ms) and Fairness index
- Rate of Packet Loss ( in percentage)
- Throughput or Productivity (in Mbps)
- Number of Dropped Calls (in percentage)
Any vertical handover project has to be designed by keeping all the evaluation parameters mentioned above in mind. We have been rendering quality research support to students and scholars from different parts of the world to implement vertical handover in matlab. Reach out to us to grab one of the best opportunities to work with a world-class technical team.